Cell and Gene Therapies: Roadblocks & Opportunities

  • Published:
    Mar 6, 2023
  • Category:
    White Paper
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Executive Summary

Regenerative medicine is advancing at an astonishing pace, with cell and gene therapies leading the way. While both therapies face growing pains as well as opportunities, one thing’s for certain: the potential for life-saving treatment is enormous.

In this white paper, we will explore the current landscape of cell and gene therapies, including the scientific and regulatory challenges that are hindering progress. We will then examine the opportunities presented by these emerging technologies and discuss how they are likely to shape the future of medicine.

Through this analysis, we hope to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the field and to offer insights into how businesses, researchers, and clinicians can navigate the roadblocks and capitalize on the opportunities presented by cell and gene therapies.

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An Introduction to Cell and Gene Therapies

What are cell and gene therapies?

Cell and gene therapies represent a promising area of medical research that aims to transform the way we treat a range of diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and autoimmune conditions.

The field has seen tremendous growth in recent years, with an increasing number of clinical trials and FDA approvals for new therapies. However, despite the progress, there are still significant roadblocks that must be overcome in order to fully realize the potential of these treatments.

Cell vs gene therapies: What’s the difference?

Cell therapies involve using living cells, often harvested from a patient's own body or a donor, to treat or cure a disease. These cells can be manipulated to produce specific therapeutic effects, such as boosting the immune system to fight cancer cells or repairing damaged tissue.

In contrast, gene therapies involve the introduction, removal, or alteration of genetic material within a patient's cells to treat or cure a disease. Gene therapies can target the underlying genetic causes of a disease, potentially offering a permanent cure.

For more information on similarities and differences between cell and gene therapies, check out our Cell vs Gene Therapies: Key Comparisons white paper.

What’s the current state of cell and gene therapies?

Cell and gene therapies are relatively new fields that have gained significant attention and investment in recent years. While some therapies have been approved and are currently available to patients, the field as a whole is still in the early stages of development.

However, the landscape is changing — fast. While small molecule drug modality is still more common when it comes to production and manufacturing, the rise of new treatments has broadened the manufacturing landscape to include many more large molecule options. 

Currently there are almost 300 cell and gene therapies under development, aimed at treating dozens of different diseases.

Roadblocks to Cell and Gene Therapy Adoption

What stands in the way of CGT adoption?

As evolving techniques, cell and gene therapies face both obstacles and opportunities.

Cell therapies, such as CAR-T cell therapy, have shown promising results in treating certain types of cancer, but they are still limited by high costs, a lack of manufacturing capacity, and other technical challenges.

Gene therapies, which involve introducing or modifying genetic material in a patient's cells, have been approved for a few rare genetic disorders but are still facing hurdles related to their safety, efficacy, and accessibility.

What are the top challenges facing cell and gene therapies?

Cell and gene therapies have the potential to revolutionize the way many diseases are treated, but there are still several challenges that must be overcome in order for these treatments to reach their full potential.

Some of the top challenges for cell and gene therapies include:

  1. Scalability. Producing cell and gene therapies on a large scale is a significant challenge, as these treatments often require complex and time-consuming manufacturing processes.
  2. Costs. The cost of cell and gene therapies is often high, which can make them inaccessible to many patients. There is a need for cost-effective manufacturing methods to be developed in order to make these treatments more widely available.
  3. Regulatory approval. The regulatory landscape for cell and gene therapies is still evolving, and gaining regulatory approval can be a time-consuming and complex process.
  4. Safety and efficacy. Because live cells cannot be sterilized before reinsertion, the potential for infection must be reduced. And while T-cells’ ability to generate multiple cell types makes them ideal for healing, unchecked cell growth can lead to potential auto-immune responses
  5. Patient selection. Identifying the right patients for cell and gene therapies can be a challenge, as these treatments may not be suitable for all patients with a given condition.
  6. Delivery and administration. The delivery and administration of cell and gene therapies can be complex and challenging, requiring specialized skills and equipment.
  7. Reimbursement. Reimbursement for cell and gene therapies is still being developed, and many insurance companies do not cover these treatments.

Overcoming these roadblocks will require a collaborative effort from all stakeholders, including researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and industry leaders. 

However, with continued investment and innovation, cell and gene therapies have the potential to transform the way we approach disease treatment and create a brighter future for patients around the world.

Opportunities for Advancement in the Industry

What solutions do cell and gene therapies provide?

Despite these considerable roadblocks, the future for cell and gene therapies is bright, with many exciting opportunities on the horizon.

Cell and gene therapies allow for more targeted, even personalized, treatment. To illustrate just how personalized it gets, Apprentice Chief Futurist Frank Maggiore walks through the steps taken in CAR-T cell therapy:

“First, I’ll be extracting cells from the patient: taking them out of the body, and culturing them into a dish. Then I’ll do genetic engineering so I can change those cells to target the specific cancer type inside the patient. Finally, I’ll reinsert them back into the patient.

So these therapies really are personalized all the way down to the single-person level. And because of this, they need more complex technology than traditional large or even small batch manufacturing.”

What are the top opportunities for cell and gene therapies?

While cell and gene therapies face numerous roadblocks, they also offer tremendous opportunities for the future of medicine. 

Here are some of the top opportunities for cell and gene therapies:

  1. Personalized medicine. One of the most exciting opportunities for cell and gene therapies is the potential for personalized medicine. By analyzing an individual's unique genetic makeup, scientists can create tailored treatments that are specific to each patient. This could lead to more effective treatments with fewer side effects.
  2. Treating rare diseases. Cell and gene therapies have shown great promise in treating rare diseases, which are often overlooked by traditional pharmaceutical companies due to their limited market size. By providing new treatment options for rare diseases, cell and gene therapies have the potential to improve the lives of millions of people.
  3. Regenerative medicine. Another area where cell and gene therapies hold tremendous promise is in regenerative medicine. By using stem cells to repair damaged tissues and organs, scientists may be able to regenerate damaged tissue and even regrow entire organs.
  4. Immune system regulation. Gene therapies have the potential to regulate the immune system, which can help treat a variety of conditions such as autoimmune diseases, allergies, and cancer. By modifying genes that regulate the immune system, scientists can create new treatments that can help patients fight off disease more effectively.
  5. Reduced healthcare costs. While cell and gene therapies can be expensive, they have the potential to significantly reduce healthcare costs in the long run. By providing effective treatments for diseases that were previously untreatable, cell and gene therapies can reduce the need for expensive hospitalizations, surgeries, and other medical procedures.

How can we tap these opportunities?

By addressing the challenges of safety, efficacy, and affordability, we can ensure that cell and gene therapies continue to develop into effective treatments that can transform the lives of millions of people around the world.

Researchers and companies are working to develop new therapies for a range of diseases, including genetic disorders, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. The field is also exploring new techniques for manufacturing and delivering therapies that could make them more widely available and affordable.

By continuing to invest in research and development, we can overcome the roadblocks and seize the many opportunities that lie ahead.

The Future of Cell and Gene Therapies

Where are cell and gene therapies headed next?

Despite the challenges facing cell and gene therapies, the future looks promising for these innovative treatments. Many exciting developments are on the horizon, and as research continues, new breakthroughs are likely to emerge.

 Imagine a world in which we can give cancer vaccines. The possibilities are truly astonishing.

“Cell and gene therapies are paving the way for our own immune systems to target and kill cancer cells. It’s the gift that keeps on giving: your body will keep fighting to protect you.”

— Frank Maggiore, Chief Futurist, Apprentice

However, it is important to recognize that the development and delivery of cell and gene therapies will not be without challenges. The high cost of these therapies, complex regulatory landscape, and ethical considerations must be addressed.

With careful planning, collaboration, and investment, we can overcome these challenges and realize the full potential of cell and gene therapies.

What can we expect in future developments?

Here are a few areas where we can expect to see progress in the future:

  1. Increasing availability. As more clinical trials are conducted and therapies gain regulatory approval, we can expect to see increased availability of cell and gene therapies to patients who need them. This will be especially important for rare diseases and conditions that are currently underserved by traditional treatments.
  2. Advancements in delivery. One major challenge in cell and gene therapies is how to deliver the treatment to the right cells in the body. Researchers are currently exploring new ways to improve delivery, such as using nanoparticles, viral vectors, and CRISPR technology.
  3. Combination therapies. Cell and gene therapies are often used in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. As research continues, we can expect to see new combinations of treatments that work together synergistically to improve outcomes for patients.
  4. Personalized medicine. One of the most exciting areas of development for cell and gene therapies is in personalized medicine. By analyzing a patient’s DNA and tailoring treatments to their specific genetic makeup, we can create more targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects.
  5. New applications. While many current cell and gene therapies are focused on treating diseases, researchers are exploring new applications for these treatments, such as enhancing athletic performance or slowing the aging process. As we learn more about the potential of these therapies, we can expect to see new and innovative applications emerge.

What’s the bottom line?

By continuing to invest in research and development, we can overcome the roadblocks and seize the many opportunities that lie ahead. With new breakthroughs on the horizon, the future looks bright for these transformative therapies.

In conclusion, cell and gene therapies hold enormous promise for treating and even curing a wide range of diseases.

While there are certainly roadblocks that must be overcome, the potential benefits are too great to ignore. The scientific and medical communities are already making significant strides in addressing the challenges of developing and delivering these therapies to patients.

Leveraging Technology to Overcome Industry Challenges

As the field continues to grow, researchers and industry leaders must work together to overcome key roadblocks such as regulatory approval, manufacturing, and reimbursement.

While cell and gene therapies are still relatively new, with many questions yet to be answered, the potential benefits for patients are significant. With continued investment, collaboration, and innovation, the field of cell and gene therapy is poised to make a profound impact on the treatment of many diseases in the years to come.

As we look to the future, it is clear that technology and innovation will continue to play a critical role in advancing cell and gene therapies. 

We can expect to see exciting new developments in areas such as gene editing, personalized medicine, and regenerative therapies. Additionally, collaboration between researchers, clinicians, patients, and policymakers will be essential to ensure that the benefits of these therapies are accessible to all who need them.

Want to find out more about digital solutions for CGT manufacturing? Give us a call! 

Reach out to us today to learn how Tempo is furthering the development of cell and gene therapies.


Our Featured Thought Leader

Frank is all about future-forward approaches here at Apprentice. In fact, he’s our Chief Futurist! Read on to learn more about Frank’s perspective on the promise of cell and gene therapies. 

Frank’s background

Frank has worked in the pharmaceutical industry for more than 25 years. Frank’s areas of expertise include a number of fields in tech and life science, including augmented reality, artificial intelligence, and cell and gene therapies.

Frank is the inventor of Single-use Biological 3D Printing, 3D printing within sterilizable bioreactors/mixing containers, Single-use robotics, the Variable Augmented Reality Marker.

Frank has also invented a method of “Contactless Communications” for secure cloud network computing where IoT devices can securely work with smart glasses, smartphones, or other mobile devices.

What connects all of Frank’s inventions and innovations is his core motivation: pushing technologies to the limit. Frank spends his time developing disruptive technologies, rapidly building functional prototypes, and determining how they can apply to various industries.


Frank’s top take on CGT applications

“The potential of cell and gene therapies to evolve the way we treat cancer is enormous. Until now, we’ve treated cancer with a blunt instrument approach: surgically cutting it out, even though that takes out healthy tissue; chemotherapy, which is like drinking poison so the enemy within will die; and radiation, which is more targeted than chemo but still fries healthy cells nearby.

But now the tools keep improving — and they show no sign of slowing down.”

— Frank Maggiore, Chief Futurist, Apprentice


  1. Kelly, G. L., Grabow, S., Glaser, S. P., & Adams, J. M. (2020). Targeting apoptosis in cancer: Therapeutic opportunities and challenges. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. Li, J., Li, Y., Wang, J., & Men, K. (2020). Major challenges and potential pitfalls of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing. Journal of Drug Targeting, 28(8), 820-829. pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  3. National Human Genome Research Institute. (n.d.). Gene therapy overview. genome.gov
  4. National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). Regenerative medicine. nih.gov
  5. Stanford Medicine. (n.d.) Center for Definitive and Curative Medicine. Why Cell and Gene Therapy? med.stanford.edu